Clinics charge as much as $250 per B12 shot. We charge as little as $3.

Pernicious Anemia Causes

Pernicious Anemia Antibodies

In PA patients, antibodies form and attack either the intrinsic factor (IF), a protein in the stomach needed for the absorption of B12, or the gastric parietal cells, which produce IF in first place. Thus, the two types of pernicious anemia antibodies are the gastric parietal cell antibodies (GPCAs, or just PCAs) and the intrinsic […]